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CPU Cache Flushing Fallacy




Even from highly experienced technologists I often hear talk about how certain operations cause a CPU cache to "flush".  This seems to be illustrating a very common fallacy about how CPU caches work, and how the cache sub-system interacts with the execution cores.  In this article I will attempt to explain the function CPU caches fulfil, and how the cores, which execute our programs of instructions, interact with them.  For a concrete example I will dive into one of the latest Intel x86 server CPUs.  Other CPUs use similar techniques to achieve the same ends.

Most modern systems that execute our programs are shared-memory multi-processor systems in design.  A shared-memory system has a single memory resource that is accessed by 2 or more independent CPU cores.  Latency to main memory is highly variable from 10s to 100s of nanoseconds.  Within 100ns it is possible for a 3.0GHz CPU to process up to 1200 instructions.  Each Sandy Bridge core is capable of retiring up to 4 instructions-per-cycle (IPC) in parallel.  CPUs employ cache sub-systems to hide this latency and allow them to exercise their huge capacity to process instructions.  Some of these caches are small, very fast, and local to each core; others are slower, larger, and shared across cores.  Together with registers and main-memory, these caches make up our non-persistent memory hierarchy.


Next time you are developing an important algorithm, try pondering that a cache-miss is a lost opportunity to have executed ~500 CPU instructions!  This is for a single-socket system, on a multi-socket system you can effectively double the lost opportunity as memory requests cross socket interconnects.

Memory Hierarchy

Figure 1.


Posted By: Akash

How To Create Your Own Run Commands

There is no doubt that Microsoft Windows is the most widely used operating system in all parts of the world. Apart from being simple to use, it is quite rich in features as well, which makes our lives quite easy.
The Run command available on Windows operating system is one such power packed feature that lets you to open a document or an application instantly with the help of just 1 command. So, rather than clicking several icons or using multiple commands, you can use the Run command to open any program or document instantly.


crete your own run command

But, do you know how to create your own run commands? Well, it is really easy, which involves just few steps. Through this article, I will help you understand how to access your favorite applications by creating custom Run commands.
Open Run Command
Before I show you how to create your own Run commands, let’s take a quick look on how to open Run Command. First of all, you need to open the Run window by just pressing the Windows Key along with the R key, i.e. Windows + R. Now, you have to type the name of the program that you desire to open up or execute. Unfortunately, not all programs can be accessed through this method. So, let me show you how to create Run commands that do not come as inbuilt commands.

Step to Be Followed


Step 1. The first step is to select the software or application for which you want to make custom Run command. For example, let us consider Google Chrome as the example here. Remember, you can choose any application other than which is already there in the Run command.


Step 2. In the second step, right click on the desktop of your computer system and make a new shortcut.
Right click > New > Shortcut


Step 3. As you select the Shortcut option in the 2nd Step, it will open up a dialog box. And, the dialog box will ask you path of the application or software for which you want to create the Run command.


Step 4. Now, you need to browse through the files and choose the one that shows “chrome.exe”. Well, it is quite obvious that all the executable files can be found in the C drive (or wherever the Operating System has been installed), inside the folder “Program Files”. For example, “C:\Program Files\Google Chrome\chrome.exe


Step 5. Once you are done with Step number 4, just click on “Next” button and simply provide a relative name to that shortcut. Remember, the same name will be used later in the Run command.
For example, “GC” for Google Chrome


Step 6. Now, click on the “Finish” button. Once it is done, an icon related to that application or software will show up on your computer’s screen. It means that the process of creating shortcut has been done successfully.


Step 7. In this step, just cut and paste that recently made shortcut icon into your computer’s root drive, in its Windows folder.
For example, C:\ Windows , Make sure you are the administrator of the computer or have its password.


Step 8. Now, you are done with the set up and can run the application through Run Command. Just go to Run and enter the keyword “GC”, and Google Chrome will begin executing.


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Posted By: Akash

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Posted By: Akash

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